Test Bank for CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics 2014 Harmelink
Publication Date: April 10, 2013 | ISBN-10: 080803359X | ISBN-13: 978-0808033592
CCH's 2014 Federal Taxation: Comprehensive Topics is a popular teacher-created combination first- and second-level tax course that offers comprehensive one-volume coverage of all the most important tax concepts and principles for a solid grounding in federal taxation. It offers clear and concise explanation of fundamental tax concepts in the framework of today's tax practice. Covering both planning and compliance, the book strikes an effective balance between AICPA model curriculum demands and the favored approaches of the majority of today's top tax teachers. CCH's Comprehensive Topics introduces students to the complex and absorbing study of federal taxation, covering a broad range of subjects beginning with basic concepts and individual taxation. Once the fundamentals are covered, tax accounting and the taxation of partnerships and corporations become the focus. The final section of the book presents estate and gift taxation coverage, along with income taxation of trusts and estates. Deferred compensation, education savings, international tax, and state and local taxation are also addressed. Written by top tax teachers from across the country, CCH's Federal Taxation: Comprehensive Topics presents materials in straightforward language to improve student comprehension. Emphasis is given to the most important topics that have the greatest real-world impact.
Chapter 1 Introduction to Federal Taxation and Understanding the Federal Tax Law
Chapter 2 Tax Research, Practice and Procedure
Chapter 3 Individual Taxation–An Overview
Chapter 4 Gross Income
Chapter 5 Gross Income–Exclusions
Chapter 6 Deductions: General Concepts and Trade or Business Deductions
Chapter 7 Deductions: Business/Investment Losses and Passive Activity Losses
Chapter 8 Deductions: Itemized Deductions
Chapter 9 Tax Credits, Prepayments, and Special Methods
Chapter 10 Property Transactions: Determination of Basis and Gains and Losses
Chapter 11 Property Transactions: Nonrecognition of Gains and Losses
Chapter 12 Property Transactions: Treatment of Capital and Section 1231 Assets
Chapter 13 Tax Accounting
Chapter 14 Taxation of Corporations–Basic Concepts
Chapter 15 Corporate Nonliquidating Distributions
Chapter 16 Corporate Distributions in Complete Liquidations
Chapter 17 Corporate Reorganizations
Chapter 18 Accumulated Earnings and Personal Holding Company Taxes
Chapter 19 Partnerships–Formation and Operation
Chapter 20 Partnerships–Distributions, Sales and Exchanges
Chapter 21 S Corporations
Chapter 22 Federal Estate Tax, Federal Gift Tax and Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax
Chapter 23 Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates
Chapter 24 Deferred Compensation and Education Planning
Chapter 25 Multijurisdictional Taxation: International and State and Local Transactions
Test Bank is a collection of every question and answer your Instructor could possibly use when creating an exam or a quiz for your course. Test Banks usually contain true and false questions, essay questions, multiple choice questions, short answer questions and matching questions. Test Banks will definitely assist you in passing your quizzes, midterm exams and final exams.
Other terms for the Test Bank are textbook exam questions, textbook test questions, test questions, exam questions, exam bank, exam book, exam questions, past papers and TB.
CCH Federal Taxation
1. Committee reports of the House Ways and Means Committee, the Senate Finance Committee, and the conference committees are published by the Government Printing Office and are also reprinted in the Internal Revenue Bulletin and Cumulative Bulletin.
2. Title 26 of the United States Code contains the statutes that authorize the Treasury Department, specifically, the Internal Revenue Service, to collect taxes for the federal government.
3. Section numbers run consecutively through the entire Code, but with occasional breaks in their sequence.
4. All Revenue Rulings are published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, and eventually in the Cumulative Bulletin.
5. If the IRS revokes or modifies a published ruling, open tax years can be retroactively affected for all taxpayers.
6. Since regulations, revenue rulings, and acquiesced Tax Court decisions all lack judicial authority, an IRS agent would more easily be persuaded by reference to District Court and Circuit Court decisions.
7. Information Releases (IRs) usually are not published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, but are distributed via a practitioners' mailing list.
8. Private letter rulings by the Internal Revenue Service are only made available by an official court order.
9. A thorough legislative history and background of a Section of the Internal Revenue Code is generally found in the CCH and RIA tax services.
10. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is arranged as follows: Chapter, Subtitle, Subchapter, Part, Section, Subpart, Subsection.
11. The IRS must follow the precedents set by decisions of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims.
12. In a Court of Appeals dispute between the 5th and 8th Circuits, the U.S. Tax Court operating within the 5th Circuit will usually refer the case to the U.S. Supreme Court.
13. Current tax law dates back only to post-1986 Internal Revenue Code developments.
14. The Citator Service outlines the history of a court case, from inception, through appeals and tells which later cases or rulings have cited it.
15. The CCH "Citator," outlines current amendments to the Code.
16. The Mertens tax service is a tax service that is sometimes cited by the courts.
17. "Closed Fact" tax research relates to the various procedures involved in "before-the-facts planning" situations.
18. Tax Court decisions that involve issues not previously decided by the Court are released as Memorandum decisions.
19. The IRS might issue an Acquiescence or a Nonacquiescence to a Regular Tax Court decision, but not to a Memorandum decision.
20. Tax "evasion" and "avoidance" are almost identical concepts, both relating to the willful failure to comply with tax laws.
21. A practitioner who is an income tax return preparer and who files a power of attorney with the Internal Revenue Service may receive and endorse a taxpayer's refund check.
22. A corporation may be represented by one of its bona fide officers before the Internal Revenue Service.
23. An individual who is a regular full-time employee of a partnership may represent the partnership before the Internal Revenue Service.
24. An accountant discovers an error on a client's returns. The accountant must advise the client and the Internal Revenue Service of the error.
25. A claim for refund (Form 1040X, Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return) must be filed within three years from the date the return was due or filed, or within two years from the date the tax was paid, whichever is later.
26. A notice of deficiency received by a taxpayer from the Internal Revenue Service means that a proposed tax liability has been automatically assessed and the taxpayer can no longer take his or her case to the Tax Court.
27. Determination letters regarding the written qualifications of an individually designed retirement plan are issued by the Internal Revenue Service's National Office in Washington.
28. The taxpayer or the Government may appeal decisions of a District Court to the Court of Appeals.
29. Decisions of the Court of Federal Claims are appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
30. The U.S. Tax Court is an independent judicial body that has no connection with the Internal Revenue Service.
31. An unenrolled individual may represent his or her regular full-time employer before the Internal Revenue Service.
32. An examination of Farley Field's 2013 income tax return resulted in an unagreed deficiency of $20,000, and he has requested that his case be heard by the Tax Court under the Small Tax Case procedures. If his case is handled using these procedures, he cannot appeal the decision.
33. The Tax Court hears cases only if the tax has been assessed or paid.
34. Doris Duncan received a statutory notice of deficiency at her residence in Ohio. If she wishes to appeal the deficiency to the Tax Court, she may file a petition at any time within 120 days of the issuance of the notice.
35. The U.S. Supreme Court is not obligated to hear all tax cases that are appealed to it.
36. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may appeal an adverse decision of the Tax Court.
37. The Tax Court is less likely to be lenient in its enforcement of the rules of evidence than the District Court or the Court of Federal Claims.
38. A jury trial is allowed in the Tax Court.
39. Payment of tax is not necessary to litigate in the District Court.
40. Taxpayers may request a determination letter from the National Office of the IRS.
41. Arnold Ames, a partner in an accounting firm, discovers that one of his clients omitted a substantial amount of gross income. Arnold should immediately notify his partners and the IRS.
42. A claim for refund must be filed within three years from the date the return was filed or within three years from the date the tax was paid, whichever date is later.
43. If the taxpayer disagrees with an examiner's findings, the taxpayer must first make an appeal to the IRS before going to the courts.
44. Barry Broom's tax return was examined by a tax auditor who determined additional tax due of $2,400. Barry does not agree with the proposed change and requests a conference with the Appeals Office. Barry is required to submit a written protest with his request to the Appeals Office.
45. Secondary sources of authority such as tax services, citators, and legal periodicals are references that explain and comment on primary sources of authority.
46. Regulations often define terms, clarify language used in the Code, and explain how the President believes the tax laws should be interpreted.
47. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has adopted Statements on Standards for Tax Service that are enforceable against all tax practitioners.
48. The Internal Revenue Code of 1939 replaced the piecemeal annual revenue acts.
49. Revenue legislation begins in the Senate.
50. The internal revenue laws were revised by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and renamed the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
51. Upon examination of a tax return, the IRS has the authority to impose additional taxes and penalties.
52. Decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and some decisions of other federal courts may be reviewed by the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is obligated to hear all federal tax cases that it has been requested to review.
53. Regulations may be legislative, interpretative, and procedural, and are afforded different weight by the courts.
54. Revenue rulings are issued on the basis of Code sections and may be subsequently changed (modified) or revoked to reflect subsequent law or regulation changes and court decisions.
55. The purpose of revenue rulings is to promote uniform application of the tax law to an entire set of facts. Therefore, IRS employees must follow the rulings, while taxpayers may appeal adverse return examination decisions based on these rulings.
56. The United States Tax Court is a court of national jurisdiction.
57. Both the taxpayer and the government may appeal decisions of the U.S. Tax Court or U.S. District Court to the U.S. Court of Appeals.
58. Practice before the IRS is available only for "enrolled agents."
59. The Tax Code provides criminal penalties for tax professionals that include prison time.
60. The Internal Revenue Code and IRS revenue rulings are types of primary sources of tax authority.
61. Research products prepared by publishing companies can be relied on as primary tax authorities.
62. A return preparer who fails to sign a tax return is subject to civil penalties as contained in the Internal Revenue Code.
63. When an individual taxpayer wishes to file a claim for refund of federal income tax, he or she should file an appeal with the appropriate IRS Appeals Office.
64. In order for a case to be handled in the U.S. Tax Court under the "small tax case procedures," the amount involved must be $25,000 or less for any one tax year.
65. Which of the following arrangements of an Internal Revenue Code citation is customary?
a. Section 21(A) II(1)(a)iii
b. Section 81(A)(iv), 2(b)c
*c. Section 243(a)(3)(C)(ii)
d. Section 482(B)(4)(d)-i
e. Section 501(IV)(a)5(B)(iii)
66. Determine the correct explanation for the following CCH citation--72- 1 USTC P9725 (CA-2 1972).
a. CCH, U.S. Tax Court, P9725, 2nd District of California, 1972, page 1.
*b. CCH, U.S. Tax Cases, U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1972, Vol. 1, P9725.
c. CCH, U.S. Tax Cases, 2nd Circuit of California, 1972, Vol. 1, P9725.
d. CCH, U.S. Tax Court, U.S. Second Court of Appeals, 1972, California, Vol. 2, P9725.
67. Determine the correct CCH citation for the following--U.S. District Court of Florida, 1969, Volume 2, P9354, CCH U.S. Tax Cases.
a. USTC 69-2, U.S. Dist. Fla., P9354
*b. 69-2 USTC P9354 (DC Fla. 1969)
c. 69-2 USTC, Fla., P9354
d. USDC-FLA (1969), USTC 69-2, P9354, CCH
68. The major portion of the CCH Standard Federal Tax Reports, in Volumes 1 through 18, consists of the various "Compilations." The purpose of the compilations is:
a. To offer tax planning ideas related to each income tax topic, and to direct the user to appropriate research articles in selected periodicals.
b. To provide the reader with in-depth discussions of general concepts of law without reflecting details of the various Code sections or regulations.
c. To outline related current developments, cross-referenced to each Code section, and to provide in-depth coverage of the legislative history of each Code section.
*d. To reflect the text of each Code section, followed by Regulations, Committee Reports, Explanations, and editorial opinion.
69. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Technical Information Releases and Announcements are published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, and are typically included in the Cumulative Bulletin.
b. The IRS issues "Determination Letters" and publishes summaries of these letters in the Internal Revenue Bulletin; they are rarely reprinted in the Cumulative Bulletin.
c. The editorial opinion included in the leading looseleaf tax services is an excellent substitute for authoritative sources of law since it is more direct and easier to understand.
*d. LEXIS/NEXIS is one of the leading computerized legal data bank services which affords the researcher-user access to the full texts of primary source materials.
70. The authority of the U.S. government to raise revenue through a federal income tax is derived from:
a. The Internal Revenue Service
b. Eisner v. Macomber (a Supreme Court case)
*c. The 16th Amendment to the Constitution
d. The House Ways and Means Committee
71. Which of the following statements regarding Revenue Rulings is correct?
a. Revenue Rulings present judicial interpretations of tax law.
*b. Revenue Rulings present administrative interpretations of tax law.
c. Revenue Rulings have the same authoritative weight as Treasury Regulations.
d. The legal citation for a Revenue Ruling refers to the associated Internal Revenue Code section.
72. Which of the following statements regarding Treasury Regulations is false?
a. In dealing with the IRS, Treasury Regulations have the authority of law.
*b. Courts are bound to follow Treasury Regulations when they are in conflict with the law.
c. The legal citation for a Treasury Regulation refers to the associated Internal Revenue Code section.
d. Regulations are published in the Federal Register.
73. Which of the following sources of tax law are cross-referenced to related Internal Revenue Code sections through the use of a similar numbering system?
a. Revenue Rulings
b. Tax Court cases
*c. Treasury Regulations
d. Determination Letters
74. Upon completion of an audit, which procedural form does the IRS agent give to the taxpayer?
a. Form 870, Waiver of Restrictions
b. 30-day letter
c. 90-day letter
*d. Revenue Agent's Report
75. When dealing with the Tax Court, which of the following pronouncements has the highest authority?
a. Revenue Procedures
*b. Treasury Regulations
c. Revenue Rulings
d. Technical Information Releases
76. Which of the following are not published either by the government or by any of the private publishing services?
a. Private Letter Rulings
b. Tax Court Memorandum Decisions
c. Revenue Procedures
*d. Determination Letters
77. Which level of the IRS handles the majority of tax audits?
a. The National Office
b. The Chief Counsel
c. The Regional Service Centers
*d. The District Offices
78. Which of the following options is not available to a taxpayer after receipt of a 30-day letter from the IRS?
a. Sign the Form 879 and await assessment of the deficiency.
b. File a protest and obtain a conference at the Appellate Division of the IRS.
c. Either request or await a 90-day letter.
*d. Request a rehearing by a new IRS agent.
79. Which of the following types of tax matters are typically handled by a Correspondence Examination?
a. Audits involving complex corporate reorganizations
*b. Simple matters that can usually be resolved by mail
c. Tax shelter examinations
d. TCMP audits
80. The term "Practice before the IRS" refers to:
a. Tax planning for nonprofit organizations
b. Macro-economic tax projections
*c. Representing a client before the IRS
d. Tax planning for timber and forest investments
81. The term "tax doctrine" refers to a:
a. Legal concept that is found in Treasury Regulations
b. Statutory provision of the tax law
*c. Judicial interpretation with strong precedential value
d. Tax treaty with a foreign country
82. Which of the following is published in the Cumulative Bulletin?
a. Treasury Regulations
*b. Revenue Rulings
c. Internal Revenue Code amendments
d. Tax Court cases
83. The "Compilations" which comprise the major portion of Volumes 1 through 18 of the CCH Standard Tax Service:
a. Are not arranged in Code section order
b. Do not include related Treasury Regulations
c. Do not contain any CCH editorial opinion
*d. Do not contain the full text of Revenue Rulings
84. Which of the following is not true regarding the CCH Citator:
a. Includes Tax Court cases
b. Includes Private Letter Rulings
*c. Contains cross-references to the Compilation volumes
d. Outlines the history of most Revenue Rulings
85. Which of the following is not permitted to "practice before the IRS"?
*c. Bookkeeping service
d. Enrolled agent
86. Which of the following is not a "mathematical error" as defined in Code Section 6213?
a. An error in addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division shown on any return
b. An incorrect use of any IRS table if such incorrect use is apparent from other information on the return
*c. An omission of income which should be included on the return
d. Inconsistent entries on the return
87. Jury trial is available in the:
a. Tax Court
b. "Small Tax Cases" procedures of the Tax Court
c. Court of Federal Claims
*d. District Court
88. Which of the following litigation is not under the Tax Court's jurisdiction?
a. Income tax
b. Estate tax
c. Excess profits tax
*d. Employment tax
89. If the fraud penalty is assessed, which one of the following may be assessed with respect to the same underpayment?
a. Negligence penalty
b. Failure to file penalty
c. Failure to pay penalty
*d. Underpayments of estimated tax penalty
90. If any part of any understatement of liability as to a return or claim for refund is due to a willful attempt to understate the liability, the preparer could be subject to a "per return" penalty of:
91. Any preparer who endorses or otherwise negotiates a refund check issued to a taxpayer for a return or claim for refund prepared by the preparer is subject, with respect to each such check, to a penalty of:
92. Interest is paid by the IRS on overpayment of tax if any overpayment of tax is not refunded within which of the following number of days after the due date of the return (or filing date, if later):
a. 10 days
b. 30 days
*c. 45 days
d. 60 days
93. What is the applicable length of time for the statute of limitations on assessment of taxes if the taxpayer willfully evades taxes?
*a. No limitation
b. 18 months
c. 3 years
d. 6 years
94. Which of the following helps solve taxpayer problems of dealing with the IRS?
a. Chief Financial Officer
b. Chief Compliance Officer
c. Chief Information Officer
*d. National Taxpayer Advocate
95. If a taxpayer under review disagrees with the revenue agent, he or she may:
a. Request a conference in the IRS Appeals Office.
b. File a petition in the Tax Court within the 90-day period after receiving the statutory notice of deficiency.
c. Wait for the 90-day period to expire, pay the assessment, and start a refund suit in the District Court or the Claims Court.
*d. All of the above.
96. Which of the following may not occur during the Appeals conference?
a. The taxpayer may represent himself or herself.
b. The Appeals Officer may request that the taxpayer submit additional information which could involve additional conferences.
*c. New issues may be raised by the Appeals Officer regardless of the reasons for raising them.
d. The Appeals Office may resolve controversies between the taxpayer and the IRS by considering the "hazards of litigation."
97. All of the following statements relating to Form 870-AD are true, except:
a. By signing Form 870-AD, the taxpayer waives restrictions on the assessment and collection of any deficiency.
*b. Form 870-AD stops the running of interest when filed.
c. Form 870-AD is merely the taxpayer's offer to waive restrictions and interest will run until 30 days after the IRS has accepted the offer.
d. The taxpayer is not required to sign Form 870-AD if the taxpayer does not agree with the decision at the Appeals level.
98. All of the following statements regarding determination letters are true, except:
a. A determination letter is generally issued in the same circumstances as a private ruling.
*b. Determination letters are issued by the National Office of the IRS.
c. Most determination letters are issued in matters involving pension plans and exempt organizations.
d. A determination letter is issued in response to a written inquiry of the taxpayer which applies the principles and precedents announced by the National Office to a specific set of facts.
99. There is no limitation on the period for assessment:
a. If the taxpayer omits from gross income an amount which is in excess of 25 percent of the amount of gross income stated on the return.
b. In the case of a deficiency attributable to the application of a carryback (capital loss, net operating loss, or investment credit carryback).
*c. If the taxpayer files a false return.
d. If a personal holding company fails to file with its return a schedule regarding its status as a personal holding company.
e. In all of the above cases.
100. Leo Lambert, a calendar year taxpayer, filed his 2012 individual income tax return on March 15, 2013, and attached a check for the balance of tax due as shown on the return. On June 15, 2013, Leo discovered that he had failed to include, in his itemized deductions, $1,000 interest on his home mortgage. In order for Leo to recover the tax that he would have saved by utilizing the $1,000 deduction, he must file an amended return no later than:
a. December 31, 2015
b. March 15, 2016
*c. April 15, 2016
d. June 15, 2016
101. In response to a preliminary (30-day) letter, a written protest discussing the facts and legal arguments must accompany a written request for an Appeals Conference in which of the following cases?
a. A proposed $2,000 tax increase
b. The tax return examination was made in an IRS office by a tax auditor
c. The tax return examination was made by correspondence
*d. A proposed disallowance of a $3,000 refund claim
102. Barbara Bigsby filed her 2011 Form 1040 on April 15, 2012, but did not pay her tax liability of $3,000. On June 15, 2013, she paid the tax in full. In 2014, Barbara discovered additional deductions for 2011 that will result in a refund of $1,000. To receive her refund, Barbara must file an amended income tax return by:
a. April 15, 2016
b. June 15, 2016
c. April 15, 2015
*d. June 15, 2015
103. Brian Bogart wishes to appeal the findings of the United States Court of Federal Claims concerning his tax liability. Brian must appeal to:
a. United States Court of Appeals for Brian's circuit
b. United States Board of Tax Appeals
c. United States District Court
*d. United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
104. The maximum amount of a deficiency that may be heard under the "Small Tax Cases" procedures of the U.S. Tax Court is:
105. What are the two Congressional Committees that have primary responsibility for the drafting of tax bills?
a. Senate Ways and Means and the House Finance Committees.
*b. House Ways and Means and the Senate Finance Committees.
c. House Tax and the Senate Tax Committees.
d. House Revenue and the Senate Revenue Committees.
106. Which of the following is an example of a primary source of law?
c. Commercial tax services.
*d. None of the above.
107. Which of the following is most likely to help explain the intent of Congress when it enacts tax legislation?
*a. Committee Reports.
b. Internal Revenue Code.
c. Income Tax Regulations.
d. IRS Letter Rulings.
108. In addition to regulations, the IRS issues which one of the following that interpret and apply the tax laws to a specific set of facts?
a. Case law annotations.
*b. Rulings and pronouncements.
c. Executive summaries and outlines.
d. Public Laws.
109. Which of the following statements is not true with respect to IRS/taxpayer litigation?
a. If the IRS "acquiesces" it accepts the court's conclusion and follows it in disputes involving other taxpayers with similar situations.
*b. If the IRS issues a "nonacquiescence," it accepts the court's conclusion but does not intend to follow the decision in disputes involving other taxpayers with similar situations.
c. After the IRS issues an acquiescence or nonacquiescence to a decision issued by the Tax Court, the case citation is followed by an (Acq.) or (Nonacq.).
d. If the IRS issues a "nonacquiescence" it does not accept the court's conclusion and does not intend to follow the decision in disputes involving other taxpayers with similar situations.
110. Which of the following statements is not true with respect to tax litigation?
a. Of the three types of opinions issued by the Tax Court, a memorandum opinion (in theory not always in practice) applies well established principles of law to facts found by the court.
b. If a taxpayer elects the Tax Court's "small tax procedures" (available for disputes involving $50,000 or less), a summary opinion, which is not open to appeal is issued by the Tax Court.
*c. District courts hear only disputes involving federal tax law.
d. Decisions by a U.S. district court may be appealed to the Court of Appeals having jurisdiction over the district court.
111. Which of the following is not true with respect to citators?
*a. Published only by the IRS.
b. Help establish that case law or rulings referenced are valid and authoritative.
c. Helps determine whether a case or ruling has been modified or supplemented.
d. Helps determine whether other subsequent cases and ruling have mentioned the case in question.
112. Which one of the following could be found in the citation for a decision by a U.S. Court of Appeals?
b. Fed. Cl.
c. F.Supp 2d.
113. Regulations can be in the form of:
*a. temporary, proposed, or final Regulations.
b. court decisions.
c. public laws.
d. (a) or (b).
114. The Tax Court may issue an opinion as a "Regular," as opposed to a "Memorandum" opinion, if
a. The amount at issue exceeds $25,000 (for individuals, trusts and estates) or $100,000 (for all other taxpayers).
b. The issue involves the Constitutional validity of any federal revenue-raising provision.
*c. The Tax Court considers the case to be expressive of a new point not previously covered by one of its published decisions.
d. Both the taxpayer and the IRS petition for publication of the opinion as a "Regular" decision.
115. All of the following statements relating to Treasury regulations are true except:
a. temporary regulations are issued to provide guidance for the public and IRS employees until final regulations are issued.
*b. the rules contained in temporary regulations can never be used as authority by taxpayers but, instead, are meant to aid in taxpayer compliance with IRS rules and regulations.
c. final regulations supersede temporary regulations.
d. proposed regulations are issued to solicit public written comments.
116. Which of the following is a primary source of tax authority:
a. revenue ruling.
b. Tax Court case.
c. temporary regulation.
*d. all of the above.
117. John Jones filed his 2012 individual income tax return on March 30, 2013, and attached a check for the tax due as shown on the return. On January 15, 2014, John discovered that he had understated his itemized deductions on his 2012 tax return. What is the last day on which he can file a claim for refund? (Assume that none of the dates below fall on a weekend or holiday.)
a. March 30, 2015
b. April 15, 2015
c. March 30, 2016
*d. April 15, 2016
118. Paul Parrot, who lives in Paris, Texas, receives a letter from the IRS stating that the result of a recent examination is a tax deficiency of $15,000. The examination was handled by a revenue agent at Paul's art studio, his only place of business. The letter also states that Paul has a right to file a protest if he does not agree with the proposal. Generally, how many days does Paul have to file a written request?
119. Compare and contrast the following tax related terms: "statutory" tax provision v. tax "doctrine."
A statutory provision relates to the Internal Revenue Code whereas a tax doctrine is a well recognized principle that has evolved from judicial interpretation of the laws.
120. List and discuss the various "primary" or "authoritative" sources of tax reference materials.
Statutory: The Code. Administrative: Treasury Regulations and Internal Revenue Service Rulings. Judicial: The various decisions of the trial and appellate courts.
121. In which government publications are proposed, temporary, and final Treasury Regulations reproduced?
The Federal Register.
122. Assume that the citation for a given Revenue Ruling is as follows: Rev. Rul. 82-45, 1982-1 CB 234. Explain what the various abbreviations and numbers mean.
The 45th Revenue Ruling of 1982, found on page 234 of the 1st Cumulative Bulletin of 1982.
123. Why is Mertens Law of Federal Taxation frequently quoted in judicial decisions?
Mertens is frequently quoted because it is a heavily annotated tax service, providing in-depth discussions of general concepts of tax law. However, Mertens is not generally used as a comprehensive, self-contained reference service.
124. What role does the Internal Revenue Service play in interpreting the tax law?
The IRS issues Revenue Rulings, Revenue Procedures, and Technical Information Releases as administrative interpretations of the law. Additionally, the IRS issues Private Letter Rulings, Technical Advice Memoranda, and Determination Letters.
125. What sanctions are available to the AICPA Tax Division which might be invoked for noncompliance by one of its members with the various Statements on Responsibilities in Tax Practice?
None. The Statements are really only advisory opinions of the AICPA as to what are appropriate standards of conduct in certain situations. However, tax practitioners should be familiar with the Statements since they indicate the viewpoint of the AICPA and some accounting firms use the Statements as policy in their firms.
126. Judy Jensen files her return two months after the due date and pays the remaining $20,000 of tax owed by her. What are her delinquency penalties?
Judy's total penalties (disregarding interest) are $2,000 consisting of a failure to pay penalty of $200 (.5% x 2 months x $20,000) and a failure to file penalty of $1,800 (5% x 2 months x $20,000) less (.5% x 2 months x $20,000).
127. Due to negligence, Roy Rugby underpaid his taxes by $50,000. What is his total negligence penalty?
Roy's penalty is $10,000 (20% x $50,000).
128. Stanley Strummer had the following items on his timely filed 2013 income tax return:
Cost of goods sold
Stanley inadvertently omitted some income on his 2013 return. What is the statute of limitations if he omitted $300,000 income on the return? What if he omitted $250,000 income?
25 percent of gross income of $1,050,000 ($1,000,000 + $50,000) is $262,500. If Stanley omitted $300,000 income which is greater than $262,500, the statute of limitation would be six years. If Stanley omitted $250,000 income which is less than $262,500, the statute of limitation would be three years.
129. Nancy Norris gives a painting to a church and takes a charitable contribution in the amount of $150,000. If the actual value was only $50,000 and if the tax underpayment is $40,000, how much valuation overstatement penalty should she pay?
The valuation claimed ($150,000) is 300 percent of the correct valuation ($50,000). The penalty is 40 percent of the underpayment of tax. Nancy's underpayment of tax is $40,000, which means the penalty is $16,000.
130. Answer the following questions concerning the statute of limitations for assessment of tax liability:
(a.) What is the general rule for the statute of limitations on assessment of tax liability?
(b.) What are the exceptions to the general rule?
(a.) Assessment of any tax must be made within three years after the return was filed or after the due date for filing, whichever is later.
(b.) The exceptions to the general rule are as follows:
(1.) There is no limitation on the period for assessment in the following cases: (1) false return; (2) willful attempt to evade tax; and (3) no return.
(2.) If the taxpayer omits from gross income an amount that is in excess of 25 percent of the amount of gross income stated on the return, the tax may be assessed at any time within six years after the return is filed or the due date for filing, whichever is later.
(3.) Where both the taxpayer and the IRS agree, the statute of limitations may be extended for a specific period.
(4.) Certain taxpayers may request a prompt assessment. The period of assessment may be shortened to 18 months in the case of a decedent, the estate of a decedent, or a corporation that is dissolved or contemplating dissolution.
(5.) If a personal holding company fails to file with its return a schedule regarding its status as a personal holding company, the tax may be assessed at any time within six years after the return is filed.
(6.) In the case of a deficiency attributable to the application of a carryback (capital loss, net operating loss, or credit), the statute of limitations runs from the year of the loss rather than the carryback year.
Sections 1311 through 1314 contain provisions to mitigate the effect of the statute of limitations where inequitable results might occur.
131. What are the five accuracy-related penalties?
The accuracy-related penalties are as follows:
(2.) Substantial understatement of income tax
(3.) Substantial valuation overstatement
(4.) Substantial overstatement of pension liabilities
(5.) Substantial estate or gift tax valuation understatement
132. What factors should a taxpayer consider in deciding whether to litigate a case and where to litigate?
Factors to consider in deciding whether to litigate a case and where to litigate include:
(2.) Payment of tax
(3.) Jury trial
(4.) Rules of evidence
(5.) Expertise of judges
(7.) Legal precedent
(8.) Factual precedent
(9.) Statute of limitations
133. What are some reasonable causes for failure to file a tax return and/or to pay one's tax liability?
The following are some reasonable causes for purposes of the delinquency penalties:
(1.) A return mailed in time but returned for insufficient postage.
(2.) A return filed within the legal period but in the wrong district.
(3.) Death or serious illness of the taxpayer or in the immediate family.
(4.) Unavoidable absence of the taxpayer.
(5.) Destruction of the taxpayer's business or business records by fire or other casualty.
(6.) Erroneous information given the taxpayer by an IRS official, or a request for proper blanks or returns not furnished by the IRS in sufficient time to permit the filing of the return by the due date.
(7.) Taxpayer made an effort to obtain assistance or information necessary to complete the return by a personal appearance at an IRS office but was unsuccessful because the taxpayer, through no fault, was unable to see an IRS representative.
(8.) The taxpayer is unable to obtain the records necessary to determine the amount of tax due for reasons beyond the taxpayer's control.
(9.) Taxpayer contacts a competent tax adviser, furnishes the necessary information, and then is incorrectly advised that the filing of a return is not required.
134. The Federal Tax Archives Library of CCH ACCESS contains information on tax laws from prior tax years. Describe why this information may be useful to a tax return preparer.
Occasionally a tax return preparer may have a client who has failed to file tax returns for numerous years. The Federal Tax Archives Library offers information on tax rates and allowable deductions since the 1978 tax year. Also, a tax return preparer may discover that an error was made on a prior year's return. The Federal Tax Archives Library can be useful in preparing an amended tax return.