operations management, 10e jay heizer, barry render solutions manual and test bank

operations management, 10e jay heizer,  barry render solutions manual and test bank


I have the following solutions manuals & test banks. You can contact me at smcollector@gmail.com 



Operations Management, 10e (Heizer/Render)
Module A  Decision-Making Tools

1) Analytic decision making is based on logic and considers all available data and possible alternatives.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic:  The decision process in operations
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  no LO

2) The last step in the analytic decision process clearly defines the problem and the factors that influence it.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic:  The decision process in operations
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  no LO

3) A state of nature is an occurrence of a situation over which the decision maker has little or no control.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

4) In a decision tree, a square symbol represents a state of nature node.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

5) If a decision maker can assign probabilities of occurrence to the states of nature, then the decision is being made under conditions of uncertainty.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

6) An example of a conditional value would be the payoff from selecting a particular alternative when a particular state of nature occurs.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3
7) The maximax criterion of decision making requires that all decision alternatives have an equal probability of occurrence.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3
8) The maximin criterion is pessimistic, while the maximax criterion is optimistic.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

9) If a decision maker knows for sure which state of nature will occur, he/she is making a decision under certainty.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

10) The expected value with perfect information assumes that all states of nature are equally likely.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

11) An example of expected monetary value would be the payoff from selecting a particular alternative when a particular state of nature occurs.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

12) The expected monetary value of a decision alternative is the sum of all possible payoffs from the alternative, each weighted by the probability of that payoff occurring.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

13) If a decision maker has to make a certain decision only once, expected monetary value is a good indication of the payoff associated with the decision.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4
14) The expected value of perfect information is the same as the expected value with perfect information.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5



15) Decision trees and decision tables can both solve problems requiring a single decision, but decision tables are the preferred method when a sequence of decisions is involved.
Answer:  FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-6

16) In a decision tree, the expected monetary values are computed by working from right to left.
Answer:  TRUE
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-6

17) Which of the following is not considered a step in the decision-making process?
A) Clearly identify the problem.
B) Select the best alternative.
C) Develop objectives.
D) Evaluate alternatives.
E) Minimize costs whenever possible.
Answer:  E
Diff: 2
Topic:  The decision process in operations
Objective:  no LO

18) The first step, and a key element, in the decision-making process is to
A) consult a specialist
B) clearly define the problem
C) develop objectives
D) monitor the results
E) select the best alternative
Answer:  B
Diff: 1
Topic:  The decision process in operations
Objective:  no LO
19) The last step of the decision-making process is to
A) develop a model
B) evaluate each alternative
C) pick the best alternative
D) implement the decision
E) check the decision with senior management
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  The decision process in operations
Objective:  no LO



20) A square node on a decision tree infers that
A) the node splits into various states of nature, of which only one will occur
B) there are several alternatives available
C) the manager must pick choose an alternative
D) both B and C
E) A, B, and C
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

21) The following decision tree has how many state of nature nodes

 

A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1
22) In terms of decision theory, an occurrence or situation over which the decision maker has no control is called a(n)
A) decision under uncertainty
B) decision tree
C) state of nature
D) alternative
E) none of the above
Answer:  C
Diff: 1
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

23) A tabular presentation that shows the outcome for each decision alternative under the various possible states of nature is called a(n)
A) isoquant table
B) payback period matrix
C) payoff table
D) feasible region
E) decision tree
Answer:  C
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

24) The outcome of an alternative/state of nature combination is a(n)
A) price
B) conditional value
C) expected value
D) conditional probability
E) All of the above are correct.
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

25) Doing nothing would yield how much profit if favorable market conditions prevail according to the following decision table?

Alternative
Favorable market
Unfavorable Market
Do Nothing
$20,000
-$10,000

A) $5,000
B) $20,000
C) -$10,000
D) $0
E) unable to determine
Answer:  B
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2


26) The decision criterion that would be used by an optimistic decision maker solving a problem under conditions of uncertainty would be the
A) expected monetary value criterion
B) equally likely criterion
C) maximax criterion
D) maximin criterion
E) minimin criterion
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

27) A decision maker who uses the maximin criterion when solving a problem under conditions of uncertainty is
A) an optimist
B) a pessimist
C) an economist
D) an optometrist
E) making a serious mistake; maximin is not appropriate for conditions of uncertainty
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

28) Expected monetary value is most appropriate for problem solving that takes place
A) when conditions are average
B) when all states of nature are equally likely
C) when all alternatives are equally likely
D) under conditions of uncertainty
E) under conditions of risk
Answer:  E
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

29) Suppose that there are three options facing a manager.  He may either build a large plant for a value of $20,000 in profit, a small plant for $10,000 in profit, or do nothing and make $3,000.  What is the EMV of the decision?
A) $20,000
B) $10,000
C) $3,000
D) $33,000
E) $11,000
Answer:  A
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4


30) There are three equally likely states of nature (High, Medium, and Low demand).  If the large factory will post profits of $50,000, $25,000, and - $10,000 under these states of nature, respectively, what is the EMV of the factory?
A) $50,000
B) $25,000
C) $28,333.33
D) $21,666.67
E) none of the above
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

31) A plant manager wants to know how much he should be willing to pay for perfect market research.  Currently there are two states of nature facing his decision to expand or do nothing.  Under favorable market conditions the manager would make $100,000 for the large plant and $5,000 for the small plant.  Under unfavorable market conditions the large plant would lose $50,000 and the small plant would make $0.  If the two states of nature are equally likely, how much should he pay for perfect information?
A) $0
B) $25,000
C) $50,000
D) $100,000
E) unable to determine
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

32) The expected value with perfect information
A) is appropriate when solving problems under conditions of certainty
B) requires that each decision alternative have a known probability of occurrence
C) is an input into the calculation of the expected value of perfect information
D) is the average of the maximax and the maximin
E) none of the above
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5


33) The difference between the expected payoff under perfect information and the maximum expected payoff under risk is
A) expected monetary value
B) economic order quantity
C) expected value of perfect information
D) PERT
E) expected monetary payoff
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

34) The likelihood that a decision maker will ever receive a payoff precisely equal to the EMV when making any one decision is
A) low (near 0%)
B) high (near 100%)
C) dependent upon the number of alternatives
D) dependent upon the number of states of nature
E) none of the above
Answer:  A
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

35) The expected value of perfect information (EVPI) is the
A) payoff for a decision made under perfect information
B) payoff under minimum risk
C) average expected payoff
D) difference between the payoff under perfect information and the payoff under risk
E) none of the above
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5


36) A decision-maker using the maximax criterion on the problem below would choose Alternative __________ because the maximum of the row maximums is __________.


States of Nature

1
2
3
Alternative A
50
55
60
Alternative B
30
50
80
Alternative C
70
80
70
Alternative D
-100
-10
140

A) A; 60
B) B; 80
C) C; 70
D) D; -100
E) D; 140
Answer:  E
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

37) A decision-maker using the maximin criterion on the problem below would choose Alternative __________ because the maximum of the row minimums is __________.


States of Nature

1
2
3
Alternative A
50
55
60
Alternative B
30
50
80
Alternative C
70
80
70
Alternative D
-100
-10
140

A) A; 55
B) B; 30
C) C; 70
D) D; 140
E) D; 10
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-3


38) The highest value for the equally likely criterion is __________; this occurs with alternative __________.


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
Option 1
$10,000
$30,000
Option 2
$5,000
$45,000
Option 3
$-4,000
$60,000

A) $20,000; Option 1
B) $25,000; Option 2
C) $28,000; Option 3
D) $32,000; Option 3
E) $60,000; Option 3
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-3

39) What is the EMV for Option 1 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.3
.7
Option 1
15,000
20,000
Option 2
10,000
30,000

A) 15,000
B) 17,000
C) 17,500
D) 18,500
E) 20,000
Answer:  D
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4


40) The expected value with perfect information is
A) the maximum EMV for a set of alternatives
B) the same as the expected value of perfect information
C) valuable in situations involving risk
D) the average return obtained when the decision maker knows which state of nature is going to occur before the decision is made
E) obtained using conditional probabilities
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

41) What is the EMV for Option 2 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.3
.7
Option 1
15,000
20,000
Option 2
10,000
30,000

A) 10,000
B) 16,000
C) 20,000
D) 24,000
E) 30,000
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4


42) What is the EMV for Option 1 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.4
.6
Option 1
10,000
30,000
Option 2
5,000
45,000
Option 3
-4,000
60,000

A) 10,000
B) 18,000
C) 20,000
D) 22,000
E) 30,000
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

43) What is the EMV for Option 2 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.4
.6
Option 1
10,000
30,000
Option 2
5,000
45,000
Option 3
-4,000
60,000

A) 5,000
B) 21,000
C) 25,000
D) 29,000
E) 45,000
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4


44) What is the expected value with perfect information of the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.4
.6
Option 1
10,000
30,000
Option 2
5,000
45,000
Option 3
-4,000
60,000

A) 5,000
B) 10,000
C) 40,000
D) 60,000
E) 70,000
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

45) What is the EMV for Option 1 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.6
.4
Option 1
200
300
Option 2
50
350

A) 200
B) 240
C) 250
D) 260
E) 300
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4


46) What is the EMV for Option 2 in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.6
.4
Option 1
200
300
Option 2
50
350

A) 50
B) 100
C) 170
D) 200
E) 350
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

47) What is the expected value with perfect information in the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.6
.4
Option 1
200
300
Option 2
50
350

A) 50
B) 200
C) 260
D) 300
E) 350
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-5


48) What is the expected value of perfect information of the following decision table?


States of Nature
Alternatives
S1
S2
p
.6
.4
Option 1
200
300
Option 2
50
350

A) 0
B) 20
C) 50
D) 150
E) 200
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

49) A retailer is deciding how many of a certain product to stock. The historical probability distribution of sales for this product is 0 units, 0.2; 1 unit, 0.3; 2 units, 0.4, and 3 units, 0.1. The product costs $8 per unit and sells for $25 per unit. The conditional value for the decision alternative "Stock 3" and state of nature "Sell 1" is
A) 1.4 units
B) $1 profit
C) $25 profit
D) $-8 profit
E) none of the above
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4

50) A retailer is deciding how many of a certain product to stock. The historical probability distribution of sales for this product is 0 units, 0.2; 1 unit, 0.3; 2 units, 0.4, and 3 units, 0.1. The product costs $8 per unit and sells for $25 per unit. The largest conditional value (profit) in the entire payoff table for this scenario is
A) $-24 profit
B) $-8 profit
C) $17 profit
D) $51 profit
E) $75 profit
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
AACSB:  Analytic Skills
Objective:  LO-Module A-4
51) Decision trees
A) give more accurate solutions than decision tables
B) give less accurate solutions than decision tables
C) are especially powerful when a sequence of decisions must be made
D) are rarely used because one needs specialized software to graph them
E) are too complex to be used by decision makers
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-6

52) A decision tree is a(n)
A) algebraic representation of alternatives and states of nature
B) behavioral representation of alternatives and states of nature
C) matrix representation of alternatives and states of nature
D) schematic representation of alternatives and states of nature
E) tabular representation of alternatives and states of nature
Answer:  D
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-6

53) All of the following steps are taken to analyze problems with decision trees except
A) define the problem
B) structure or draw a decision tree
C) assign probabilities to the alternatives
D) estimate payoffs for each possible alternative/state of nature combination
E) solve the problem by computing expected monetary values for each state of nature node
Answer:  C
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-6

54) A primary advantage of decision trees compared to decision tables is that decision trees
A) are more accurate
B) are faster
C) are smaller
D) are cheaper
E) can be used for sequential problems
Answer:  E
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-7


55) A problem that involves a sequence of decisions
A) cannot be analyzed with expected monetary value
B) can be better analyzed with a decision tree than by a decision table
C) must be analyzed in the same order that the decisions are made
D) cannot be analyzed with decision tree software
E) can only be analyzed using decision making under certainty
Answer:  B
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-7

56) A(n) __________ is a tabular means of analyzing decision alternatives and states of nature.
Answer:  decision table
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

57) __________ is the criterion for decision making under uncertainty that finds an alternative that maximizes the minimum outcome or consequences.
Answer:  Maximin
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

58) __________ is the criterion for decision making under certainty that assigns equal probability to each state of nature.
Answer:  Equally likely
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

59) __________ is the expected payout or value of a variable that has different possible states of nature, each with an associated probability.
Answer:  Expected monetary value or EMV
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

60) __________ is the difference between the payoff under perfect information and the payoff under risk.
Answer:  Expected value of perfect information or EVPI
Diff: 2
Topic:  Decision tables
Objective:  LO-Module A-5

61) A(n) __________ is a graphical means of analyzing decision alternatives and states of nature.
Answer:  decision tree
Diff: 1
Topic:  Types of decision-making environments
Objective:  LO-Module A-5
62) A(n) __________ is an occurrence or situation over which the decision maker has little or no control.
Answer:  state of nature
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

63) The square symbol used in drawing a decision trees represents a __________ node.
Answer:  decision
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

64) A branch of a decision tree that is less favorable than other available options may be __________.
Answer:  pruned or dropped
Diff: 1
Topic:  Decision trees
Objective:  LO-Module A-2

65) In the context of decision-making, define state of nature.
Answer:  A state of nature is an occurrence or situation over which the decision maker has little or no control.
Diff: 2
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

66) In the context of decision-making, define alternative.
Answer:  An alternative is a course of action or a strategy that may be chosen by a decision maker.
Diff: 2
Topic:  Fundamentals of decision making
Objective:  LO-Module A-1

67) Identify, in order, the six steps of analytical decision making.
Answer:  1. Clearly define the problem and factors that influence it.
2. Develop specific and measurable objectives.
3. Develop a model–that is, a relationship between objectives and variables (which are
measurable quantities).
4. Evaluate each alternative solution based on its merits and drawbacks.
5. Select the best alternative.
6. Implement the decision and set a timetable for completion.
Diff: 2
Topic:  The decision process in operations
Objective:  no LO

6 comments:

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  2. Is there a gurantee that ill get it?

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  3. Can you please send it to my email? :)

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  4. could you please send the PDF by e-mail

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